LASTRICO SOLARE: MANUTENZIONE E RESPONSABILITA’ PER DANNI CON PARTICOLARE RIFERIMENTO ALLA PROBLEMATICA DELLE INFILTRAZIONI

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Per lastrico solare, dal punto di vista tecnico, ma anche giuridico, si intende la superficie terminale dell’edificio con la funzione di copertura- tetto delle sottostanti unità immobiliari ed è comprensivo di ogni suo elemento, sia pure accessorio, ad eccezione di quelle opere dotate di autonoma consistenza e che abbiano una specifica destinazione in favore del suo utilizzatore esclusivo.

Il lastrico solare può essere di proprietà comune ad uso esclusivo, di proprietà esclusiva oppure di proprietà ed uso comune; per questo motivo può essere oggetto di numerose controversie condominiali soprattutto relativamente ai dibattuti temi della manutenzione e responsabilità per danni.

La fattispecie è disciplinata dall’art.1126 del codice civile che testualmente recita “ Quando l’uso dei lastrici solari o di una parte di essi non è comune a tutti i condomini, quelli che ne hanno l’uso esclusivo sono tenuti a contribuire per un terzo nella spesa delle riparazioni o ricostruzioni del lastrico; gli altri due terzi sono a carico di tutti i condomini dell’edificio o della parte di questo a cui il lastrico solare serve, in proporzione del valore del piano o della porzione di piano di ciascuno”. Da tale norma si evince una differenza di disciplina: se il lastrico adempie solo alla funzione di copertura dell’edificio, alle riparazioni e/o ricostruzioni dello stesso, nonché all’eventuale risarcimento dei danni sono obbligati tutti i condomini in proporzione alle quote riportate dalle tabelle millesimali. Se, diversamente, sussistono i presupposti per l’applicazione dell’art.1126 c.c. alla riparazione ed al risarcimento è tenuto in diversa misura il titolare dell’uso esclusivo perché il lastrico, oltre alla funzione di copertura, offre a quest’ultimo altre utilità.

Lo stesso dato letterale dell’art.1126 c.c. stabilisce che il criterio cardine per la ripartizione delle spese è costituito dall’utilità e dal vantaggio tratto dai proprietari degli immobili cui il lastrico serve ancorché da copertura. Tale norma costituisce, peraltro, applicazione del più generale principio di cui all’art.1123 c.c. che, in tema di ripartizione delle spese per la conservazione e il godimento delle cose comuni, ne stabilisce la ripartizione in proporzione all’uso che ciascuno può farne.

Il criterio di ripartizione è applicabile per ogni spesa, ordinaria o straordinaria, di manutenzione o di rifacimento della copertura e della pavimentazione, che riguardi la struttura dei lastrici e la loro finalità di copertura, riguardando altresì le spese relative agli interventi accessori e necessari in via conseguenziale e strumentale, riconducibili a vetustà e a deterioramento per difetto di manutenzione o attinenti alle parti del lastrico con funzione di copertura.

A tale stregua, sono da ritenersi a completo carico dell’utilizzatore esclusivo soltanto le spese attinenti a quelle parti del lastrico del tutto avulse dalla funzione di copertura, come ad esempio quelle attinenti ai parapetti ed alle ringhiere, tutto ciò che vi è sovrapposto o sporga e che ad esso si colleghi “ab extra” perché dotato di una propria autonomia strutturale/funzionale, e le spese dirette unicamente al miglior godimento delle unità immobiliari di proprietà individuale di cui il lastrico sia il prolungamento.

Allo stesso tempo, preme ricordare che l’applicazione del principio generale di cui all’art.1126 c.c. viene meno a fronte della rigorosa prova di una esclusiva e specifica imputabilità soggettiva del danno (es. all’utilizzatore esclusivo del lastrico per cattivo utilizzo).

Una delle cause che porta maggiori contrasti è senza dubbio quella connessa al problema delle infiltrazioni di umidità; in pratica, non esiste condominio nel quale, prima o poi, non si debba affrontare tale tipo di problematica.

Purtroppo, spesso dette questioni non sono di facile soluzione ed eliminazione, a volte anche attraverso opere eseguite a regola d’arte.

In primis, occorre comprendere l’origine del problema, cioè da dove provengano le infiltrazioni, e, a tal fine, sarebbe necessario che l’assemblea condominale affidasse l’incarico ad un tecnico per stabilire da dove provengono le infiltrazioni e quale ne sia la causa (es. normale usura o negligenza da parte di chi aveva l’utilizzo esclusivo del lastrico o altro).

Nel caso di infiltrazioni provenienti dai lastrici solari, la legge stabilisce che la spesa per riparare il danno che provoca l’infiltrazione stessa e le spese per risarcire colui o coloro che da dette infiltrazioni hanno subìto danni alle loro proprietà esclusive, si suddivide ponendo un terzo di essa a carico di chi utilizza il lastrico in via esclusiva e due terzi a carico dei comproprietari ai quali il lastrico serve da copertura (compreso colui che ha subìto il danno).

Questo criterio di suddivisione delle spese trova applicazione solo se le infiltrazioni sono causate dalla  normale usura delle guaine protettive e della impermeabilizzazione del lastrico dovuto al trascorrere del tempo.

Se, invece, la perizia di un tecnico incaricato dall’assemblea condominiale accertasse che l’infiltrazione è dovuta esclusivamente alla incuria e alla trascuratezza dell’utilizzatore o del proprietario esclusivo del lastrico solare, sarà quest’ultimo a dover sopportare integralmente le spese di ripristino e di risarcimento dei danni provocati ad altri condomini.

 

 

Geom. Riccardo Manni

 

 

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