Parti comuni dall’A alla Z – Ripartizione delle spese

98

PARTI COMUNI – RIPARTIZIONE SPESE

  • Abbaino e lucernario

L’abbaino è una struttura architettonica costituita da una finestra verticale aperta sui tetti normali a falde inclinate per illuminare ed arieggiare soffitte e sottotetti, nonché per permettere l’accesso sul tetto o all’interno del sottotetto.

La natura comune o esclusiva dell’abbaino dipende dal titolo o dalla destinazione d’uso, anche in considerazione dei beni a cui sono funzionalmente destinati.

L’opera deve essere costruita a regola d’arte e non deve pregiudicare la funzione di copertura del tetto, in quanto diversamente si andrebbero a ledere i diritti degli altri condomini.

Lo stesso vale per i lucernari ed altri manufatti simili.

  • Androni, anditi, vestiboli e portoni d’ingresso

L’androne costituisce un elemento necessario per la configurabilità stessa del fabbricato potendosi definire come quell’ambiente di passaggio esistente tra il portone d’ingresso dell’edificio, le scale ed il cortile.

La sua natura comune è presunta direttamente dalla legge, salvo titolo contrario, in virtù della funzionalità e strumentalità dello stesso rispetto alle parti comuni, nonché alle unità immobiliari di proprietà esclusiva.

Tutti i proprietari di unità immobiliari ricomprese nello stabile condominiale, anche se aventi diverso ed autonomo accesso dalla strada, devono, pertanto, concorrere alle spese di manutenzione dell’androne, in misura proporzionale al valore della proprietà di ciascuno.

Soltanto in alcuni casi è possibile escludere la natura condominiale dell’androne se questo da accesso ad una o più unità immobiliari di proprietà esclusiva.

Lo stesso vale per gli anditi, i vestiboli ed i portoni d’ingresso.

  • Autorimesse

Nel caso in cui si tratti di un’area destinata al parcheggio di tutti i condomini, le spese di manutenzione andranno ripartite in proporzione al valore della proprietà di ciascun condomino.

Nel caso in cui, invece, le rimesse siano di proprietà esclusiva dei singoli condomini, la ripartizione delle spese dipenderà molto dalla conformazione dell’edificio: se, ad esempio, il parcheggio è interrato ed è un tutt’uno con l’edificio, i proprietari di unità immobiliari non titolari di box dovranno partecipare alle spese riguardanti parti comuni a tutto l’edificio, mentre restano a carico dei soli proprietari dei posti auto le spese relative a quelle parti di edificio di loro esclusiva utilità.

  • Cancello automatico

Le spese di installazione, automatizzazione, utilizzo e conservazione del cancello automatico si suddividono tra tutti i condomini interessati sulla base dei millesimi di proprietà.

  • Cassette postali

Poiché è normalmente impossibile determinare l’intensità dell’uso che i singoli condomini ne fanno, l’uso delle cassette postali si presume pertanto omogeneo e indifferenziato, con conseguente suddivisione delle spese di installazione e manutenzione in parti uguali per il numero di unità immobiliari esistenti.

Diversamente dal casellario, le singole cassette sono di proprietà esclusiva e pertanto gli interventi che le riguardano direttamente ed esclusivamente devono essere effettuati e sostenuti dai singoli condomini.

  • Cortili

Almeno che non risulti da un titolo diverso o che non risulti una specifica destinazione d’uso relativa soltanto ad alcune unità immobiliari, il cortile è da ritenersi comune a tutte le unità immobiliari (anche se non vi si affacciano) data la sua polifunzionalità.

  • Facciate

Data la loro essenzialità per l’esistenza stessa dello stabile, la facciata costituisce un bene comune le cui spese devono essere, quindi, sostenute da tutti i condomini in base ai rispettivi millesimi di proprietà (nel caso in cui contribuiscano al decoro architettonico dell’edificio, in quanto appena detto vanno ricompresi anche gli elementi decorativi dello stabile).

  • Illuminazione e pulizia delle parti comuni

A fronte di una regola generale che vuole che i condomini sono tenuti a contribuire alle spese di manutenzione delle parti comuni in base all’uso che questi ne fanno, un attimo più complicata appare la questione delle scale.

Si sostiene, comunque, che vada effettuata una distinzione tra spese di conservazione e spese d’uso: le spese di conservazione dell’impianto di illuminazione debbano essere ripartite tra tutti i condomini in base alle tabelle millesimali, salvo diversa disposizione del regolamento condominiale.

Le spese d’uso, invece, dovranno essere ripartite tra i condomini in base all’uso che ne viene fatto.

Per le pulizie, infine, si dovrà fare riferimento al regolamento condominiale, non essendoci una chiara disposizione legislativa in merito.

  • Intercapedini

La natura comune delle intercapedini ne comporta l’obbligo di contribuzione alle spese in capo a tutti i condomini, salvo diversa disposizione.

  • Giardini condominiali

Ai sensi di legge, il giardino condominiale non può essere classificato come un bene comune. Nel caso lo fosse in ragione di una diversa pattuizione, le spese di riferimento devono essere sostenute da tutti i condomini in relazione alle rispettive quote millesimali.

  • Gronde, canali di scolo e pluviali

La grondaia non può essere considerata un bene comune ai sensi del c.c.. Pur tuttavia, data la sua funzione, è considerata in comunione tra i condomini che se ne servono.

Quanto appena detto non trova obiezioni nel caso in cui il tetto sui cui poggia la grondaia sia di proprietà comune; ciò che, invece, non è chiaro, è come vada considerata la grondaia in caso di tetto in proprietà esclusiva dato che la Cassazione non è d’accordo sulla natura esclusiva della grondaia in quanto pertinenza del tetto.

Lo stesso ragionamento può essere esteso ai canali di scolo e pluviali.

  • Muri

La ripartizione delle spese inerenti i muri, siano essi maestri o perimetrali, fa effettuata tra tutti i condomini.

Ai pannelli di riempimento si applica lo stesso criterio in quanto sono considerati alla stregua dei muri perimetrali.

E ancora, stesso discorso può essere effettuato per le fondazioni e per i pilastri.

  • Servizio di portierato

Le spese relative al servizio di portierato devono essere ripartite tra tutti i condomini, salvo diversa pattuizione, dato il vantaggio generale assicurato dal servizio stesso.

Lo stesso criterio si applica agli interventi di manutenzione dei locali portineria e, ovviamente, alla retribuzione del portiere.

  • Sottotetto

Ad oggi, sono presunti beni di proprietà comune, con tutto quanto ne consegue in relazione alla suddivisione delle spese, tutti quei sottotetti che sono destinati, per le caratteristiche strutturali e funzionali, all’uso comune.

  • Suolo, sottosuolo e piani cantinati

Il suolo si presume bene comune ma la comunione non si estende alle aree adiacenti al fabbricato, salvo che queste non abbiano carattere di beni pertinenziali al fabbricato.

Anche il sottosuolo è da presumersi bene comune, così come tali vanno presunti i locali – cantina, purché questi siano obiettivamente destinati all’uso e al godimento comune.

  • Tetti, lastrici e solari comuni

Le spese inerenti il tetto, i lastrici ed i solari comuni vanno ripartite tra tutti i condomini (indipendentemente dall’utilità che ne traggono).

In caso di condominio parziale, invece, è proprio il criterio dell’utilità a stabilire chi debba partecipare alle spese del tetto e chi no.

  • Terrapieni e opere di rafforzamento

Sono da presumersi beni comuni salvo che si trovino sotto opere di proprietà esclusiva.

  • Vespaio

Il vespaio si caratterizza come un bene al servizio esclusivo delle unità immobiliari del piano terreno e poggiante sul suolo comune.

 

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